Neuropathic pain: mechanisms of development, principles of diagnostics and treatment
Neuropathic pain is a pain caused by a disease or focal damage to the somatosensory nervous system. The prevalence of chronic pain with neuropathic features in different countries is estimated at 7–10 %. Damages to the nervous system can occur at the level of peripheral nerves, plexus and dorsal roots (peripheral neuropathic pain) or spinal cord and brain (central neuropathic pain). Neuropathic pain is based on pathological activation of pain pathways. Neuropathic pain occurs with diabetic polyneuropathy more often than with all polyneuropathies of another etiology. Hyperglycemia is the major cause of chronic diabetes mellitus and its progression. Since the cause of pain can rarely be cured, treatment is usually symptomatic. Neuropathic pain is generally poorly controlled by analgesics. NB management is started with conservative pharmacotherapy before applying invasive analgesia. Although there are many drugs that can be used in patients with DPN, monotherapy can not always stop pain syndrome. In addition, the patient may not tolerate the full therapeutic dose of the drug. All this dictates the need for combination therapy.
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