Thermal and mechanical sensory and pain testing in healthy students


  • M. G. Tsagareli Department of Physiology, Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • G. P. Gurtskaia Laboratory of Pain and Analgesia, Beritashvili Center for Experimental Biomedicine, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • D. S. Mjavanadze Department of Physiology, Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • G. S. Sanadiradze Department of Physiology, Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • I. D. Kvachadze Department of Physiology, Tbilisi State Medical University, Tbilisi, Georgia


gender, thermal assessment, mechanical pressure assessment, experimental pain


Several lines of clinical and experimental investigations of a wide variety of painful conditions have suggested ethnic and gender differences in pain perception. In this study we report some findings of cold and heat sensations, thermal pain thresholds, mechanical pressure thresholds and pressure pain thresholds in healthy student volunteers. We did not find any statistical significant differences in thermal assessment. However, we revealed gender differences on the mechanical pressure sensation threshold and the mechanical pressure pain threshold. Our study confirmed significant variability across trials and individuals, which appeared greater at lower heat and mechanical pressure intensities. Additional studies and collecting more data are needed to determine ethnic and gender differences between groups.


Download data is not yet available.


Alabas O. A., Tashani O. A., Tabasam G., Johnson M. I. Gender role affects experimental pain responses: A systematic review with meta-analysis // Eur. J. Pain. – 2012. – N 16(9) : 1211–1223.

Antonaci F., Sand T., Lucas G. A. Pressure algometry in healthy subjects: Inter-examiner variability // Scand. J. Rehab. Med. – 1998. – 30(1) : 3–8.

Bartley E. J., Fillingim R. B. Sex differences in pain: A brief review of clinical and experimental findings // Brit. J. Anesthesia. – 2013. – 111(1) : 52–58.

Bulls E. L, Freeman A. J. B., Robbins M. T. et al. Sex differences in experimental measures of pain sensitivity and endogenous pain inhibition // J. Pain Res. – 2015. – 8 : 311–320; doi : 10.2147/ JPR.S84607

Chan M. Y. P., Hamamura T., Janschcewitz K. Ethnic differences in physical pain sensitivity: Role of acculturation // Pain. – 2013. – 154(1) : 119–123.

Edwards R. R., Fillingim R. B. Ethnic differences in thermal pain responses // Psychosom. Med. – 1999. – 61(3) : 346–354.

Fabian L. A, McGuire L., Goodin B. R. et al. Ethnicity, catastrophizing, and qualities of the pain experience // Pain Med. – 2011. – 12(2) : 314–321.

Fillingim R. B. Sex, gender and pain. – Seattle, WA : IASP Press. 2001.

Filingim R. B., King C. D., Ribeiro-Dasilva M. C. et al. Sex, gender, and pain: a review of recent clinical and experimental findings // J. Pain. – 2009. – 10(5) : 447–485.

Gracely R. H. Studies of pain in human subjects // Wall and Melzack’s Textbook of Pain / McMahon S. B., Koltzenburg M., Tracey I., Turk D. C. eds. – Elsevier, 2013. – Р. 283–300.

Jones A., Zachariae R. Investigation of the interactive effects of gender and psychological factors on pain response // Brit. J. Health Psychol. – 2004. – 9(Pt 3) : 405–418.

Kowalczyk W. J., Sullivan M. A., Evans S. M. et al. Sex differences and hormonal influences on response to mechanical pressure pain in humans // J. Pain. – 2010. – 11(4) : 330–342.

Kvachadze I., Tsagareli M. G., Chichinadze G. N., Dumbadze Z. Thermal and mechanical pain assessment in humans: A preliminary study // Georgian Med. News. – 2015. – No. 11(248) : 57–60.

Kvachadze I., Tsagareli M. G., Dumbadze Z. An overview of ethnic and gender differences in pain sensation // Georgian Med. News. – 2015. – N 1(238) : 102–108.

Mogil J. S. Sex differences in pain and pain inhibition: multiple explanations of a controversial phenomenon // Nature Rev. Neurosci. – 2012. – 13(12) : 859–866.

Rahim-Williams F. B., Riley J. L., Williams A. K., Filligim R. B. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: Do biology, psychology and culture matter? // Pain Med. – 2012. – 13(4) : 522–540.

Riley J. L., Robinson M. E., Wise E. A. et al. Sex differences in the perception of noxious experimental stimuli: A meta-analysis // Pain. – 1998. – 74(2–3) : 181–187.

Sauer K., Kemper C., Glaeske G. Fibromyalgia syndrome: prevalence, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in outpatient health care // Joint Bone Spine. – 20101. – 78(1) : 80– 84.




How to Cite

Tsagareli MG, Gurtskaia GP, Mjavanadze DS, Sanadiradze GS, Kvachadze ID. Thermal and mechanical sensory and pain testing in healthy students. PMJUA [Internet]. 2016 Dec. 1 [cited 2023 Feb. 8];1(4):34-7. Available from:



Original article